Sunday, May 24, 2020
To what extent is the welfare state of the 21st century similar to that envisaged by William Beveridge? This essay will commence by explaining who William Beveridge was and what problems he seen within the welfare state. Following on from this, it will then compare the welfare state of the 21st century to that seen by William Beveridge in his famous Ã¢â¬Å"report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied ServicesÃ¢â¬ which was published on the 1st December 1942, discussing problems and similarities. The Ã¢â¬Å"five giant evilsÃ¢â¬ Beveridge claimed to exist will be indentified and analyzed in depth and how Clement Attlees 1945 Labour government pledged to eliminate these evils. Margaret Thatcher was the first woman conservativeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This was the only change that proved more giving; all other changes were less giving. Benefits for the unemployed were not discarded but were only to last for 30 weeks. Marriage and training grants for the self employed were discarded, and most importantly, the scale of the payments received from the c ontributory scheme fell below the minimum needed for continuation. This resulted in the need for national assistance being means tested, this over the years grew more and more important, which was not what Beveridge had intended. Now, the benefits for the unemployed, more commonly known as Ã¢â¬â¢Job Seekers AllowanceÃ¢â¬â¢ are calculated annually as to what a person can claim in a week. Ã¢â¬Å"On June 29, 2009 the maximum payable was Ã £65.45 per week for a person aged over 25, Ã £53.45 per week for a person aged 18Ã¢â¬â24. The rules for couples where both are unemployed are more complex, but a maximum of Ã £102.75 per week is payable, dependent on age and other factors.Ã¢â¬ (Benefit Tax Credit Rates 2006). The system now is a lot more complex and intricate and although a lot of people rely on the benefit system for survival, poverty is still an enormous issue as it was in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Other acts which were put in place to tackle want/poverty include the Family Allowances Act and the National Assistance Act So how did the Labour Government tackle the other four giants? There were policy initiatives put in place relating to each giant individually. For
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Introduction Motivation is a reason or set or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in psychology and neuropsychology. The reasons may include basic needs (e.g., food, water, shelter) or an object, goal, state of being, or ideal that is desirable, which may or may not be viewed as positive, such as seeking a state of being in which pain is absent. The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. Advantages of Motivation A positive motivation philosophy and practice should improve productivity, quality and service. Motivation helps people to: Ã¯ ® achieve goals Ã¯ ® gain a positive perspective Ã¯ ® create the power to change Ã¯ ®Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Intrinsic rewards are internal to, or within, the individual; for example, satisfaction or accomplishment.Some authors distinguish between two forms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. For instance, a feeling of responsibility for a mission may lead to helping others beyond what is easily observable, rewarded, or fun.A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment. Intrinsic and Extrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. A hobby is a typical example.Intrinsic motivation has been intensely studied by educational psychologists since the 1970s, and numerous studies have found it to be associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students.There is currently no grand unified theory to explain the origin or elements of intrinsic motivation. Most explanations combine elements of Bernard Weiners attribution theory, Banduras work on self-efficacy and other studies relating to locus of control and goal orientation. Thus it is thought that students are more likely to experience intrinsic motivation if they: 1. Attribute their educational results to internalShow MoreRelatedDifferent Theories of Motivation1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Motivation is a reason or set or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in psychology and neuropsychology. The reasons may include basic needs (e.g., food, water, shelter) or an object, goal, state of being, or ideal that is desirable, which may or may not be viewed as positive, such as seeking a state of being in which pain is absent. The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or moralityRead MoreThe Different Theories of Motivation929 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWithout motivation, a person might never get out of bed because for the average person, motivation is behind every single action. For psychologists, motivation means much more than that, too, as it is important to understand human motivation to understand human behavior. Motivation can be studied from a variety of psychological schools of thought including behaviorism, cognition, psychoanalysis, humanism, and cognitive-behavioral theo ry. There are many theories of motivation that can help psychologistsRead MoreDiscuss The Different Theories Of Motivation Essay1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesQ.12: DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION. ANS.: MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES: MASLOWÃ¢â¬â¢S NEED HIERARCHY: INTRODUCTION: The behaviour of an individual at a particular moment is usually determined by his strongest need. Psychologies claim that needs have a certain priority. As the more basis needs are satisfied, an individual seeks to satisfy the higher needs. If his basic need sere not met, efforts to satisfy the higher need should be postponed. FOUNDER: A.H. Maslow, a famous social scientistRead MoreLearning And Managing Different Languages With Outstanding Theories Of Motivation1875 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesto self-motivation, willingness and desire to learn new languages as well as social interaction form part of the factors that may help one to incorporate the new system in life. In relation to the context discussed, this section seeks to relate the experience in learning and managing different languages with outstanding theories of motivation. The renowned theories of motivation include, among others, the cognitive evaluation theory, reinforcement theory, goal setting theory, equity theory and ClaytonRead MoreProcess and Content Theory of Motivation and How They Apply to the Work Place1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTheories of Motivation - Overview of the Content Theories of Motivation Presentation Transcript 1. Yenna Monica D. P. 2. What is MOTIVATION? Derived from the Latin word Ã¢â¬Å¾MOVEREÃ¢â¬Å¸ which means Ã¢â¬Å¾to moveÃ¢â¬Å¸ The processes that account for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. 3. Ã¯ ½ Effort - concerns the magnitude or intensity of employeeÃ¢â¬Å¸s work Ã¢â¬â related behaviour. Ã¯ ½ Direction - quality of an employeeÃ¢â¬Å¸s work Ã¢â¬â that is the investment of sustained effortRead MoreThe Theory Of Motivation And Motivation1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Schools of thought in relation to motivation refer to the theories developed by different psychologists to explain motivation in dept. it is crucial to understand motivation and the factors that cause it since it contributes to achievement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s goal and desires in life. Therefore, motivation can be described as the process of enticing an individual through a reward to increase the occurrence of a specified behavior in an organization. Different factors can be used as motivators in an organizationRead MoreCompare Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExtrinsic Motivation USP MBA Program - Presentation Ã¢â¬â Trimester 1 Ã¢â¬â 2011 by Group 8 Members Mukhtar Ahmed Nitesh Chandra ; Gabriel Pen ; Ateca C. Vakatora ; Devina R. Rao ; Salote Naulivou Objectives: To define motivation To define Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation To give examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivations Identify the relationship between Intrinsic Extrinsic motivations using the theories that discuss the relationship and give examples. Conclusion Motivation What isRead MoreEssay on What is Motivation?1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMotivation in the workplace is an important area for discussion and many theories as to what motivates people to do their jobs well have been formulated. This essay will discuss three different theories of motivation and work. Also produce a definition of motivation. First mention that you will define motivation then state that you will talk about different theories of motivation To begin with, there are to aspects of motivation to look at the first of these is a definitions of motivation. RobbinsRead MoreMotivation, Hygiene Theory And The Acquired Needs Theory1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesword Ã¢â¬ËmotivationÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to the internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Several theorists such as Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg and David MCClelland have proposed their own theories of motivation in a workplace; the hierarchy of needs, the motivation hygiene theory and the acquired needs theory. These theories are referred to as the needs theories of motivationRead MoreThe Theory And Integrated Control Theory976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessecond motivation theory is the Integrated Control Theory. The Integrated Control Theory offers a design for analyzing and processing work motivation and organizational problem solving. It allows individuals to develop expectations, plan and execute actions, receive environmental feedback, compare feedback to expectations and adjust behavior accordingly (Klein, 1989). Klein chose the name control theory because it is a compilation of various overlapping theories of motivation. The theory also incorporated
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In this paper, the topic that is going to be discussed is what pushed the United States to enter World War I, and how did its entry affect the outcome of the war. The two main reasons that caused the United States to enter the war are the Zimmerman Telegram and the issues of unrestricted submarine warfare. the following paragraphs are going to discuss these topics a little further. Many things lead up to the US involvement in WWI. Germany had declared war on Russia and France, and Great Britain had declared war on Germany. Americans were becoming angered by German attacks on our ships because we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t even fighting in this war. After events like these, among many others, Wilson had no choice but to enter the war. The first topic as mentioned earlier about the Zimmerman Telegram, this particular telegram, Germany asked Mexico to join the war on GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s side. The telegram was intercepted by the UK, and was given to the U.S. on February 24, 1917. Germany then proposed to help Mexico regain the lands that had been taken from it in the Mexican-American War of the 1840s. This was seen as a major insult and hostile action by Germany. Second, there was an issue of unrestricted submarine warfare. Early in the war, Germany had sunk both merchant and passenger ships without warning. Then later on Germany was trying to strangle the UK by sinking ships bringing supplies to the island nations. Germany then pledged to avoid sinking passenger ships and then warn merchant ships so theyShow MoreRelatedEssay about Why the United States Entered World War Two1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAutonomy and Responsibility: Why the United States Entered World War II World War II was an exceptional war for the United States. The United States emerged from the war as a world superpower and protector of all other nations. There were many reasons why the United States entered World War II, however President Franklin Roosevelt was in some way directly connected to every reason. Roosevelt wanted to enter World War II as soon as it started for political and economic needs. However, the AmericanRead MoreWorld War One On The Side Of The Allies1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWorld War 1 was a war that began in 1914. It consisted of many countries around the world who chose to fight for either the allied powers or the central powers. The War was fought mainly in Europe and it started with just European countries fighting. Later, more international countries started to join World War 1. The United States of America joined the war in 1917 on the side of the allies. Even though many people believed that the US should have stayed out of World War One, America j oined the WarRead MoreEssay on World War I: United States Involvement 1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages He Kept us Out of War (World War I Quotes). This quote was a democratic slogan stated during the election of 1916 on behalf of President Woodrow Wilson. This slogan makes an attempt to refer to the good leadership qualities and decisions that President Wilson made to keep the United States of America out of the war and that is why he should be elected again to serve as President. Though this made a valid argument to show that Wilson was smart to keep us out of war, many events took place thatRead MoreRoosevelt s Impact On The World War II Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshad two opportunities to involve America in World War II: Japan was at war with China, and Germany was at war with Great Britain, France and other countries. Both war zones presented plenty of opportunities to involve the American government in the war, and Roosevelt was quick to seize upon the opportunities presente d. His first opportunity came from the war in the Pacific. It was in August, 1940, that the United States broke the Japanese purple war-time code. This gave the American governmentRead MoreThe Internment Of Germans During World War II846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring World War 2 there were so many chaoses around the world. One of the most outrageous events that happened is the internment of Germans. The U.S. should have never brought up the idea of sending Germans and Americans with German background in internment camps just because they were with Germany. There were too many Germans living in the U.S., many of them were loyal to the U.S. and were against the Nazis, and they were being discriminated without providing a real reason. First of all, thereRead MoreThe Vietnam War A Long And Hard Battle1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages4/20/2015 The Vietnam War a long and hard fought battle that lasted from November, 1954 and ended on April 30, 1975, but the United States didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get involved until June of 1965. (Vietnam War Statistics) The likely collapse of the South Vietnamese army and the fear for the spread of communism is why America joined in on this war, but joining the war was extremely controversial. Many people believe that the United States involvement In the Vietnam War should never have happened. I believe that sinceRead MoreAmerica s Entrance Of The World War I1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPeriod 3 19 May 2017 Former American president Woodrow Wilson said in 1917 relating to World War I, Ã ¨This is a war to end all wars.Ã ¨ Although this was not the most accurate quote as World War II followed the first, World War I was one of the bloodiest wars ever fought. The war had 37 million casualties with another 19.7 million wounded. One of the events that lead to the start of the war was the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife by Serbian nationalistsRead MoreThe Reasons Behind America Joining World War I727 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesblockade threaten our foreign interests. Thus, the United States must join the Allies in The Great War and defend our country, her interests and her allies overseas in Europe. In this paper the reader will be introduced to the pros and cons of America joining the fight against the Central Powers, and why it is essential that the country put up a strong fight against the enemy and become involved with the war. Of the advantages of America joining the world war, one of them is protecting our investmentsRead MorePresident Franklin D. Roosevelt Essay1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrights and keep themÃ¢â¬ (The Four Freedoms). Prior to the U.S. entry into World War II, the American people were reluctant of being involved with the affairs of the world. Through a turn events and the persuasive actions of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the country was re-geared for mobilization and war against tyranny in whichever form it presented itself. The President delivered many great speeches that brought the United States to global involvement with the use of early national media and propagandaRead MoreThe Emerging Role of the US in WW I Essay985 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnlike World War II, the causes of World War I were more like politically complex. It all started in Europe when the continent was split into two sides. Since a lot powers were involved in mutual agreements and all the countries in the cont inent take their sides. That is why when the war did happen; they were force to support the policies. America on the other hand, is not part of any alliance to any country in Europe. America does not want any kind of participation during the war as they are more
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Religion is used as a tool for discriminating social groups. Even though most religions are practically the same, group identifications will usually overlap witn religious identification. This cause the conflicts between religious groups are against each because of social, political and economic reasons and its not based on religious reasons, which for the most part doesnt support conflict. Ãâ Some major wars where started because of religious groups thinking that their religion is more superior and try to push there views on society through violence and overtaking. For example, the crusades were a huge religious conflict Catholic Europe against Muslims, pagans, and heretics. Some religious groups have too much power and tend to abuse that ower to push there beliefs on our society. Viewing religion in an interactionism perspective, we look to see how religion interacts with society in everyday life; positively or negatively. Interactionism perspective tries to see how religion affects the daily lives of individuals and how they interpret their religious experiences. We will write a custom essay sample on Theoretical Perspectives on Religion or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Richard T. Shaffer states that, In studying the social order, whereas functionalist and conflict theorists both analyze large-scale, society-wide patterns of behavior, theorists who take the interactionist perspective eneralize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. Interactionists are especially interested in shared understandings of everyday behavior. (Schaefer 17) Here are some examples of interactionist perspectives on religion in society: Religions bring people together and create friendships that can affect everyday life. Religious people believe that they will be rewarded by behaving properly by being granted an afterlife in paradise and punish those who break the rules with placing them in hell for eternal burning. Ãâ Religion can bring families together but may also cause older generation push there beliefs on the children. Looking at society with different perspective helps us get a better understanding of religion as a whole and how it effects our society. Whether its a functionalist, conflict, or interactionism perspectives, we see the good and bad effects, and the way religion interacts with society. So keep an open mind when analyzing different aspects in our society. Resourses Schaefer, Richard T.. Sociology: A Brief Introduction, 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2011..
Monday, April 6, 2020
Giotto was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance. Madonna Enthroned is an oil painting on tempera on panel painted by Giotto in 13 century. It is a medium sized painting at 325x204 cm. The earliest consistent representations of Mother and Child were developed in the Eastern Empire, where an iconoclastic strain in culture that rejected physical representations as idols. The values of the current time period from them till now are not much different between Christian moms and children. The content or meaning created by the relationship between form and subject matter is clearly Christian. The child on her lap in this painting has a bold face stare just as the mom does. Showing how serious and disciplined it was in those times between mother and child. The prophets in the painting are surrounding the mother and child and looking up at the two prophets holding crowns. They seem to almost be looking up in prayer. There are two angels kneeling at the bottom of the throne. The angels show how holy and sacred the mother and child are together. The angels are protecting and watching over. I see equality in this painting and I also see prestige and honor.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Cambodian Cultural Institution essays Many younger people, who are just beginning to learn about the history of Southeast Asia, and Cambodia in particular, probably have heard of the terrible things that happened to Cambodia between the years 1970 and 1979. It was the era when the communist Pol Pot regime took over the country and his ruthless policies through genocide slaughtered and starved to death as many as two million Cambodians. All cultural institutions in Cambodia were negatively effected during the Pol Pot period of political history. The movie, The Killing Fields brought the horror of that period of history to all parts of the world. But today, there is a new spirit of hope in Cambodia, the political criminals who were part of the ghastly killing are on trial for their terrible crimes, and the history of Cambodia and the cultural institutions of Cambodia have much to offer visitors and residents too. This paper will relate to the rituals and institutions that are part of the culture of Cambodia, and the cultural places that are precious to Cambodians, such as Angkor Wat. Also, this paper will review the attitudes of Americans toward Cambodians, and towards Cambodian food and culture. NEW YEAR: One of the traditional cultural events in Cambodia, according to research found in Cornell University, is the Cambodian New Year, which takes place April 13 through April 15. This is the dry season in Cambodia, when farmers are not working in their fields as much. In 2008 for the Cambodian Calendar, it is the YEAR OF THE BOAR. The exact time that the New Year will arrive will be determined by astrologers, but before the New Year celebrations, Cambodians will prepare by cleaning their houses, decorating their houses with candles, lights, flowers and star-shaped lanterns. PCHUM BEN: this is a religious ceremony that happens in September; it is a time for all Cambodians (through the Buddhist tradition, since most Cambodians are Buddhists) to...
Friday, February 21, 2020
History events - Essay Example For instance, regional wars in Afghanistan, Korea, and Vietnam heightened the differences and tensions between the US and the USSR. Consequently, the cold war shaped the foreign policies of the US as the country prepared to protect itself and its citizens against any potential wars. The first major event that occurred during the cold war is the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR). FDR had ben pivotal in creating the Axis alliance that emerged victorious during the World War II (Murray, 53). The Axis alliance brought together the US, the USSR, and the United Kingdom with their allies. There was mutual respect between the three leaders; FDR, Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill, which helped to promote good working relations during the World War. However, FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s death in April 1945 changed the relations between the three countries and might as well have been the course of the cold War. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s successor, President Harry S. Truman, adopted a different approach in his relations with the East, including the USSR. At this time, the anti-communism stances were developing strongly in the West. President Truman continued his public negative statements about the USSR, worsening the relations between the two countries and their allies (Murray, 77). The second major event during the cold war was the formation of The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which brought together countries in Europe and the US to form a strong union that would counter the growing influence of the USSR. The original founders of NATO are The US, United Kingdom, Portugal, France, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Canada, Iceland, Luxembourg, Holland, and Belgium (Murray, 115). NATO created a unified force under the US, which was able to counter the influence of the USSR in the East. The other prominent event in the cold war was the enactment of the Mutual Security Act in 1951, under President Harry S. Truman. The Act was a declaration by