Monday, October 14, 2019
Greek Philosophy Essay Example for Free
Greek Philosophy Essay What Is Philosophy? Ã¢â¬ ¢Philosophy : The studies of Greco-Roman thinkers on activities and inquiries. It is also the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct. Ã¢â¬ ¢Philosophy focuses on three main types: Ã¢â¬ ¢Stoicism Ã¢â¬ ¢Skepticism Ã¢â¬ ¢Epicurean Ã¢â¬ ¢Philosophy consists of these philosophical areas: Ã¢â¬ ¢Metaphysics Ã¢â¬ ¢Materialism Ã¢â¬ ¢Idealism Ã¢â¬ ¢Epistemology Ã¢â¬ ¢Empiricism Ã¢â¬ ¢Rationalism Ã¢â¬ ¢Ethics Ã¢â¬ ¢Hedonism Ã¢â¬ ¢Cynicism Three Main Types Stoicism Ã¢â¬ ¢Refers to the knowledge of Aristotle oMind is a blank state, impressions are made by the 5 senses. Ã¢â¬ ¢Stoics deny the metaphysical points of view. oReal objects produce intense feelings. oThe body and soul are pairs that act and react to each other. Skepticism Ã¢â¬ ¢Examines as to what someone should believe- derived from Platos schooling Ã¢â¬ ¢Objections on skepticism: oIts commitment to knowledgeable limitation is nonexistent. oIf knowledge is limited and judgment is not expressed, life is presumed unlivable. Epicurean Ã¢â¬ ¢Formulated by Epicurus who believed philosophy was studied to make the soul happy. Ã¢â¬ ¢Happiness created with less wanting of materialistic things and more peace. Philosophical Areas Metaphysics Ã¢â¬ ¢Branch of philosophy accountable for the study of existence. oAnswers what is? Ã¢â¬ ¢The foundation of philosophy oWithout metaphysics, we would not be able to comprehend the world or act accordingly to it. Materialism Ã¢â¬ ¢Refers to the simple focus of the material world. oEverything in the universe is matter and matters. Ã¢â¬ ¢The philosophy is held by those who believed that material items are accountable for existence. Idealism Ã¢â¬ ¢Stresses the central ideal and spiritual interpretations of experiences. oThey believe world exists as a spirit Ã¢â¬ ¢Two forms: oMetaphysical idealism oEpistemological idealism Epistemology Ã¢â¬ ¢The investigation of grounds and nature of knowledge of the world. oFocuses on the knowledge of differences between truths and falsehood. Ã¢â¬ ¢Fundamental aspect to how we think. Empiricism Ã¢â¬ ¢Theory of experience as primary source to our knowledge of the world. oLearning through perception. Ã¢â¬ ¢Classical empiricism oRejection of innate, in-born knowledge and concepts Ã¢â¬ ¢Radical empiricism oExplains that all our knowledge is derived from our senses. Ã¢â¬ ¢Moderate empiricism oDescribes the exceptions to general empiristic rules. Rationalism Ã¢â¬ ¢Philosophical movement that introduced mathematical methods to philosophy. oCan be understood through mathematical and logicalÃ principles, not sensory experiences. Ethics Ã¢â¬ ¢Branch of philosophy dealing with what is the proper action for humans. oAnswers What do I do? Ã¢â¬ ¢Requirement for human life, decides course of action. Hedonism Ã¢â¬ ¢Doctrine that states that all pleasure is naturally acceptable- good for the soul. Ã¢â¬ ¢Nothing but pleasure is good. Cynicism Ã¢â¬ ¢Described as a way of life, which consists of asceticism, anti-conformism, and anti-conventionalism. Ã¢â¬ ¢Basis of cynicism is the virtue of well being and a happy life. Philosophers Socrates Ã¢â¬ ¢Possibly the wisest sage of all time Ã¢â¬ ¢Contributions to philosophy: oPithy sayings. oSocratic method of discussion oSocratic irony oSocratic method- saying he knows nothing and that unexamined life is not worth living Ã¢â¬ ¢Participated in the military during the Peloponnesian War. oCommitted suicide by ingesting poison hemlock. Plato Fun fact: Plato is not his original name- its Aristocles, but was later changed to Plato by his teachers Ã¢â¬ ¢Considered the most important philosopher to have ever lived- father of Idealism. Ã¢â¬ ¢Thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. Ã¢â¬ ¢Student and follower of Socrates. Ã¢â¬ ¢Impacted math, science, morals, and political theories with hisÃ Legacy of the Academy schooling. Aristotle Ã¢â¬ ¢Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great. Ã¢â¬ ¢Wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art. Ã¢â¬ ¢Developed deductive reasoning. Ã¢â¬ ¢Basis: Aristotles syllogism Ã¢â¬ ¢Church used Aristotle to explain doctrines in the Middle Ages. Concept of Prime Element Ã¢â¬ ¢Thales Attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world; identified water as the ultimate principle. Ã¢â¬ ¢Pythagoras Creator of Pythagorean Theorem; believed earth was what encompassed all beings. Ã¢â¬ ¢Anaximenes Explained how air was universally present and is the source of all that exists. Ã¢â¬ ¢Heraclitus Disagreed with aforementioned philosophers and claimed fire was the classical element. Ã¢â¬ ¢Empedocles Created the cosmogenic theory that composed of the four classical elements: water, earth, fire, and air. 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